The availability of water from the Nile throughout the year, combined with the area’s high temperatures, makes possible intensive cultivation along its banks. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia. Nile River The Nile River flows over 6,600 kilometers (4,100 miles) until emptying into the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile waters flow at an average volume of 300 million cubic meters (79.2 billion gallons) per day, according to Travelling Along Rivers, a Dutch bilingual travel magazine. The waterways from a fan-shaped area of fertile mash-land called a _____. The White Nile Rift System, although shallower than the Bahr el Arab rift, is about 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) deep. The longest river in Africa, it has historically been considered the longest river in the world, though this has been contested by research suggesting that the Amazon River is slightly longer. The following is an annotated bibliography of key written documents for the Western exploration of the Nile. This trading system secured Egypt's diplomatic relationships with other countries, and contributed to economic stability. The Nile was also a convenient and efficient means of transportation for people and goods. The Nile stretches 4,160 miles (6,695 kilometers). Although it is generally associated with Egypt, only 22% of the Nile’s course runs through Egypt. "Nile" . Q-How long is the Nile River?A-The Nile River is approximately 4,100 miles long and was historically thought to be the longest river in the world. Updates? Before the placement of dams on the river the yearly discharge varied by a factor of 15 at Aswan. According to Gramma, the Nile is a river on the [[What is a continent|continent]] of Africa. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Rushdi Said postulated that Egypt itself supplied most of the waters of the Nile during the early part of its history. According to one theory on the evolution of the Nile system, about 25,000 years ago the East African drainage to Lake Victoria developed an outlet to the north, which sent its water into Lake Sudd. North of Cairo, the Nile splits into two branches (or distributaries) that feed the Mediterranean: the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east, forming the Nile Delta. There is plenty of debate surrounding this, however, for many believe the Amazon River in South America might be longer. For example, Pliny the Elder wrote that the Nile had its origins "in a mountain of lower Mauretania", flowed above ground for "many days" distance, then went underground, reappeared as a large lake in the territories of the Masaesyli, then sank again below the desert to flow underground "for a distance of 20 days' journey till it reaches the nearest Ethiopians. The Nile River is approximately 4,100 miles long and was historically thought to be the longest river in the world. The Nile river. M.P. Today, the river continues to serve as a source of irrigation, as well as an important transportation and trade route. They recount that they paddled through two war zones, regions notorious for bandits, and were arrested at gunpoint.. Along the stretch of the Nile north of Khartoum, which is sometimes called the United Nile, two parts can be distinguished. The Nile (iteru in Ancient Egyptian) has been the lifeline of civilization in Egypt since the Stone Age, with most of the population and all of the cities of Egypt resting along those parts of the Nile valley lying north of Aswan. Akhet, which means inundation, was the time of the year when the Nile flooded, leaving several layers of fertile soil behind, aiding in agricultural growth. The Atbara flows only while there is rain in Ethiopia and dries very rapidly. Winter winds blow south, up river, so ships could sail up river, and down river using the flow of the river. The English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος.  Although they descended whitewater manually the team used outboard motors for much of their journey. Water was vital to both people and livestock. On 14 May 2010 at Entebbe, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda signed a new agreement on sharing the Nile water even though this agreement raised strong opposition from Egypt and Sudan. The Kagera River, which flows into Lake Victoria near the Tanzanian town of Bukoba, is the longest feeder, although sources do not agree on which is the longest tributary of the Kagera and hence the most distant source of the Nile itself. British explorer and missionary David Livingstone pushed too far west and entered the Congo River system instead. The Blue Nile flows about 1,400 kilometres to Khartoum, where the Blue Nile and White Nile join to form the Nile. The Nile is a river in Africa. How long is the Nile River? Security concerns have limited cruising on the northernmost portion for many years. Corrections? In Egyptian Arabic, the Nile is called en-Nīl while in Standard Arabic it is called an-Nīl. These seasons, each consisting of four months of thirty days each, were called Akhet, Peret, and Shemu. Three expeditions under a Turkish officer, Selim Bimbashi, were made between 1839 and 1842, and two got to the point about 20 miles (32 km) beyond the present port of Juba, where the country rises and rapids make navigation very difficult.  Jerónimo Lobo describes the source of the Blue Nile, visiting shortly after Pedro Páez. How long is the Nile River? The Nile River, considered the longest river in the world, is approximately 6,853 kilometers (4,258 miles) long, but its exact length is a matter of debate. There is some debate over this title, though – some scientists argue that the Amazon river in South America is longer. The lake itself is on the border of DR Congo, but the Nile is not a border river at this point. The Nile (Arabic: النيل, romanized: an-Nīl, Arabic pronunciation: [an'niːl], Bohairic Coptic: ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ Pronounced [pʰjaˈro], Nobiin: Áman Dawū) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa.  Hesiod at his Theogony refers that Nilus (Νεῖλος) was one of the Potamoi (river gods), son of Oceanus and Tethys. The underlying principle was the use of over-year storage, to conserve water from rainy years for use in dry years. In harsh and arid seasons and droughts the Blue Nile dries out completely.. The river is the lifeline of South Sudan and Egypt. The River Nile - Main Facts The River Nile is the second longest river in the world, after the Amazon River, and it is the longest river in the continent of Africa with a length of approximately 6695 kilometres. Cambridge University Press. Geophysical exploration of the Blue Nile Rift System estimated the depth of the sediments to be 5–9 kilometers (3.1–5.6 mi). The expedition began at the White Nile's beginning at Lake Victoria in Uganda, on 17 January 2004 and arrived safely at the Mediterranean in Rosetta, four and a half months later.. The Nile River basin, which covers about one-tenth of the area of the continent, served as the stage for the evolution and decay of advanced civilizations in the ancient world. The erosion and transportation of silt only occurs during the Ethiopian rainy season in the summer, however, when rainfall is especially high on the Ethiopian Plateau; the rest of the year, the great rivers draining Ethiopia into the Nile (Sobat, Blue Nile, Tekezé, and Atbarah) have a weaker flow. As a result of this, the Blue Nile was known as far as its exit from the Ethiopian foothills and the White Nile as far as the mouth of the Sobat River. It can change significantly during periods of flood. Its main headstream may then have been the present Atbara River. Various expeditions failed to determine the river's source. The Nile was also an important part of ancient Egyptian spiritual life. Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this "vast expanse of open water" for the first time, Speke named the lake after the then Queen of the United Kingdom. An unending source of sustenance, it played a crucial role in the development of Egyptian civilization. The basin is bordered on the north by the Mediterranean; on the east by the Red Sea Hills and the Ethiopian Plateau; on the south by the East African Highlands, which include Lake Victoria, a Nile source; and on the west by the less well-defined watershed between the Nile, Chad, and Congo basins, extending northwest to include the Marrah Mountains of Sudan, the Al-Jilf al-Kabīr Plateau of Egypt, and the Libyan Desert (part of the Sahara). The Ancient Egyptians cultivated and traded wheat, flax, papyrus and other crops around the Nile. It is approximately 8 km (5 miles) wide. The length of the Nile is usually said to be about 6,650 km (4,130 mi), The river's outflow from that lake occurs at. 19 (11th ed.). The Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today. The river's flow is disturbed at several points by the Cataracts of the Nile, which are sections of faster-flowing water with many small islands, shallow water, and rocks, which form an obstacle to navigation by boats. With such a long length, the Nile River is speculated to be the longest river in the world. The Nile River’s basin spans across the countries of Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania. The Nile has long been used to transport goods along its length. These animals were killed for meat, and were domesticated and used for ploughing—or in the camels' case, carriage. The Bahr al Ghazal, itself 716 kilometers (445 mi) long, joins the Bahr al Jabal at a small lagoon called Lake No, after which the Nile becomes known as the Bahr al Abyad, or the White Nile, from the whitish clay suspended in its waters. Burton, recovering from illness and resting further south on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, was outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to be the true source of the Nile when Burton regarded this as still unsettled. The last part of the approximately 200 kilometers (120 mi) river section starts from the western shores of the lake and flows at first to the west until just south of Masindi Port, where the river turns north, then makes a great half circle to the east and north until Karuma Falls. The Nile is also featured in a number of Egyptian myths. These basins were not interconnected until their subsidence ceased, and the rate of sediment deposition was enough to fill and connect them. The Nile runs for 4,258 miles throughout Africa. The River Atbara overflowed its closed basin during the wet periods that occurred about 100,000 to 120,000 years ago. More than half of the Nile's water is lost in this swamp to evaporation and transpiration. In Coptic, the word ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ, pronounced piaro (Sahidic) or phiaro (Bohairic), means "the river" (lit. *Response times vary by subject and question complexity. Gish Abay is reportedly the place where the "holy water" of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop.. In: Science, New Series, Vol. The Nile is formed by three principal streams: the Blue Nile (Arabic: Al-Baḥr Al-Azraq; Amharic: Abay) and the Atbara (Arabic: Nahr ʿAṭbarah), which flow from the highlands of Ethiopia, and the White Nile (Arabic: Al-Baḥr Al-Abyad), the headstreams of which flow into Lakes Victoria and Albert. It has a length of about 4,132 miles (6,650 kilometres) and drains an area estimated at 1,293,000 square miles (3,349,000 square kilometres). As the Nile was such an important factor in Egyptian life, the ancient calendar was even based on the three cycles of the Nile. Nile river facts.  When in flood the Sobat carries a large amount of sediment, adding greatly to the White Nile's color.. The Nile River is the longest river in the world which is about 7,088 km long. Many cruise ships ply the route between Luxor and Aswan, stopping at Edfu and Kom Ombo along the way. With such an extended length, the Nile River is speculated for being the longest river on this planet. The wadi passes through Gharb Darfur near the northern border with Chad and meets up with the Nile near the southern point of the Great Bend. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. : El nom grec del riu Nil pot ser d’origen amazic? It used to be considered the longest river in the world, followed by the Amazon. The annual sediment transport by the Nile in Egypt has been quantified.. The following bridges cross the Blue Nile and connect Khartoum to Khartoum North: The following bridges cross the White Nile and connect Khartoum to Omdurman: the following bridges cross from Omdurman: to Khartoum North: The following bridges cross to Tuti from Khartoum states three cities, Murchison Falls in Uganda, between Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga. The Nile River is also a vital waterway for transport, especially at times when motor transport is not feasible—e.g., during the flood season. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. It is thought that approximately 30 million years ago the early Nile, then a much shorter stream, had its sources at about 18° to 20° N latitude. The Nile was much longer at that time, with its furthest headwaters in northern Zambia. The Bahr al Ghazal's drainage basin is the largest of any of the Nile's sub-basins, measuring 520,000 square kilometers (200,000 sq mi) in size, but it contributes a relatively small amount of water, about 2 m3/s (71 cu ft/s) annually, due to tremendous volumes of water being lost in the Sudd wetlands. According to the United States Geological Survey, the Nile is about 100 miles longer than the Amazon. Irrigation, navigation and other needs were considered. , In the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥ'pī (Hapy) or Iteru, meaning "river". European involvement in Egypt goes back to the time of Napoleon. ", "The origin of the word INDIGO and ANILA", EarthTrends: The Environmental Information Portal, "Bridging the Gap in the Nile Waters Dispute", Next on Egypt's to-do: Ethiopia and the Nile, "The Nile Basins |volume 1 The Hydrology of the Blue Nile and Akbara and the Main Nile to Aswan, with some Reference to the Projects Nile control Dept. Narmer's kingdom was a Dynasty TRUE. The east was thought of as a place of birth and growth, and the west was considered the place of death, as the god Ra, the Sun, underwent birth, death, and resurrection each day as he crossed the sky. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself. The River Nile is about 6,670 km (4,160 miles) in length and is the longest river in Africa and in the world. Below the confluence with the Blue Nile the only major tributary is the Atbara River, also known as the Red Nile, roughly halfway to the sea, which originates in Ethiopia north of Lake Tana, and is around 800 kilometers (500 mi) long. The mighty Nile river allowed people and goods to travel long and short distances. In ancient times, the waters of the Nile rose and flooded the surrounding plains. The Amazon might also be the world’s longest river—depending on whom you ask. Most paddle steamers have been retired to shorefront service, but modern diesel tourist boats remain on the river. https://www.britannica.com/place/Nile-River, Nile River - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Nile River - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). It is the largest river by volume, and its basin is home to the Amazon Rainforest, the world’s richest and most-varied biological reservoir. The average flow rate of the White Nile at the tails of the swamps is about 510 m3/s (18,000 cu ft/s).  Beyond that, however, the etymology is disputed. Peak flows of over 8,212 m3/s (290,000 cu ft/s) occurred during late August and early September, and minimum flows of about 552 m3/s (19,500 cu ft/s) occurred during late April and early May. It is mentioned extensively in research and literature related to Egypt and the Egyptian empire. The Nile river flows into South Sudan just south of Nimule, where it is known as the Bahr al Jabal ("Mountain River"). Modern exploration of the Nile basin began with the conquest of the northern and central Sudan by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, Muḥammad Ali, and his sons from 1821 onward. Páez's account of the source of the Nile is a long and vivid account of Ethiopia. Then again Gramma could be mistaken.  Or perhaps Old Libyan lilu meaning water (in modern Berber ilel ⵉⵍⴻⵍ means sea).. about 4,000 miles (6,437 km) 200. , Another possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning "river". The Nile in Egypt and Sudan is now called Al-Nīl, Al-Baḥr, and Baḥr Al-Nīl or Nahr Al-Nīl. The northern section of the Nile runs almost entirely through the desert and many of the towns and cities …  , The other theory is that the drainage from Ethiopia via rivers equivalent to the Blue Nile, the Atbara and the Takazze flowed to the Mediterranean via the Egyptian Nile since well back into Tertiary times.. In Egypt, the River Nile creates a fertile green valley across the desert. 3. The Nile River is approximately 4,100 miles long and was historically thought to be the longest river in the world. The countries within its drainage basin are: Ethiopia, Sudan Hapi was the god of the annual floods, and both he and the pharaoh were thought to control the flooding. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. The Blue Nile (Amharic: ዓባይ, ʿĀbay) springs from Lake Tana in the Ethiopian Highlands. After Mongalla, the Bahr Al Jabal enters the enormous swamps of the Sudd region of South Sudan. The Nile River was extremely important to settlement patterns in Egypt. According to a report by the Strategic Foresight Group around 170 million people have been affected by droughts in the last century with half a million lives lost. It is the longest river on Earth (about 6,650 km or 4,132 miles), and flows into the Mediterranean Sea near Alexandria. Abridged illustrated edition, as The Story of the Blue Nile (Harper & Row, 1966). Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. The Nile is considered the world's longest river and flows through 11 countries. There is plenty of debate surrounding this, however, for many believe the Amazon River in South America might be longer. The growth of the current Sahara began about 6,000, Dorothy Middleton, 'Baker, Florence Barbara Maria, Lady Baker (1841–1916)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile in the Years – 1768, 1770, 1771, 1772, and 1773, https://web.archive.org/web/20070110025022/http://www.egyptattraction.com/nile-river-egypt.html, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/hampshire/4864782.stm, "River Discharge into the Mediterranean Sea: Climatology and Aspects of the Observed Variability", "Pinpointing the sources and measuring the lengths of the principal rivers of the world", Amazon Longer Than Nile River, Scientists Say, "The Quest for Cooperation in the Nile Water Conflicts: A Case for Eritrea", "What's the Blue Nile and the White Nile? Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Steam navigation remained integral to the two countries as late as 1962. 274, Issue 5293 (Dec.6,1996), pp. Related questions.  The Nile basin is complex, and because of this, the discharge at any given point along the mainstem depends on many factors including weather, diversions, evaporation and evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. On the banks of the river dwelled people who were among the first to cultivate the arts of agriculture and to use the plow. A Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly: This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 02:57. , The Nile's water has affected the politics of East Africa and the Horn of Africa for many decades. Agatharcides records that in the time of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, a military expedition had penetrated far enough along the course of the Blue Nile to determine that the summer floods were caused by heavy seasonal rainstorms in the Ethiopian Highlands, but no European of antiquity is known to have reached Lake Tana.  The connection of the different Niles occurred during cyclic wet periods. The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, then ends in a large delta and flows into the Mediterranean Sea. The Siege of Khartoum was broken with purpose-built sternwheelers shipped from England and steamed up the river to retake the city. , Several attempts have been made to establish agreements between the countries sharing the Nile waters. The two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It flows through the following countries: Kenya, Eritrea, Congo, Burundi, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia. While most Egyptians still live in the Nile valley, the 1970 completion of the Aswan High Dam ended the summer floods and their renewal of the fertile soil, fundamentally changing farming practices. This rift is possibly still active, with reported tectonic activity in its northern and southern boundaries. With a total length of about 6,650 km (4,130 mi)[n 1] between the region of Lake Victoria and the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile is the longest river on Earth. Improvements in air, rail, and highway facilities beginning in the 20th century, however, greatly reduced dependency on the waterway. Allan, for the Ministry of Hydro-power of the Republic of the Sudan, during 1955–1957 Morrice was their Hydrological Adviser, and Allan his predecessor. Due to the tectonic uplift of the Nubian Swell, the river is then diverted to flow for over 300 km south-west following the structure of the Central African Shear Zone embracing the Bayuda Desert. Just south of the town it has the confluence with the Achwa River. The Nile Delta is approximately 100 miles (161 km) long from north to south, and it spreads out along ab…  This created a very long and deep canyon which was filled with sediment after the Mediterranean was recreated. "Τηθὺς δ᾽ Ὠκεανῷ Ποταμοὺς τέκε δινήεντας, Robert J. Stern, Mohamed Gamal Abdelsalam: The Origin of the Great Bend of the Nile from SIR-C/X-SAR Imaginary. Ideally, such international agreements should promote equitable and efficient usage of the Nile basin's water resources. At Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Morrice and W.N. This is known to be the longest river in the world, and it is also a north−flowing river, which makes it a bit different from all of the other rivers that you can find in the world. It flows into the Nile. For thousands of years, the river has provided a source of irrigation to transform the dry area around it into lush agricultural land. The calculations were enabled by accurate monthly inflow data collected for 50 years. The river flooded its banks. The Nile is 6,695 kilometres long. Below Renk the White Nile enters Sudan, it flows north to Khartoum and meets the Blue Nile. The Blue Nile River is 994 miles (1,600 km) long. At Al Dabbah it resumes its northward course towards the first Cataract at Aswan forming the 'S'-shaped Great Bend of the Nile already mentioned by Eratosthenes.. The river is a major transport source particularly true during the flooding where travel by road is not available in many places along the river. The Nile River is 4,184 miles (6,695 kilometers) long. 1) Found in northeast Africa, the Nile has long been recognised as the longest river in the world – stretching a massive 6,695km! From here it soon meets with the Sobat River at Malakal. However, its position as the second-longest river in the world is highly disputed as the title has for long been granted to the Nile River in Egypt. There are two theories about the age of the integrated Nile. Nile River, Arabic Baḥr Al-Nīl or Nahr Al-Nīl, the longest river in the world, called the father of African rivers. Major river in Africa and the longest river in the world, Role in the founding of Egyptian civilization, Crossings from Khartoum to the Mediterranean Sea. This African wonder travels through eleven countries, which include Ethiopia, Eretria, Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Egypt, Congo, and South Sudan. There was a problem. The present Nile is at least the fifth river that has flowed north from the Ethiopian Highlands. It is 6,650 km (4,130 miles) long and runs through a total of ten countries. With the completion of the Suez Canal and the British takeover of Egypt in the 1882, more British river steamers followed. To the south lay the vast enclosed drainage system containing the large Lake Sudd. Barnett directed the software development and computer operations. About how long was the Nile River? , The White Nile Expedition, led by South African national Hendrik Coetzee, navigated the White Nile's entire length of approximately 3,700 kilometres (2,300 mi). answered 6 years ago. There is plenty of debate surrounding this, however, for many believe the Amazon River in South America might be longer.  As sea level rose at the end of the most recent ice age, the stream which is now the northern Nile pirated the ancestral Nile near Asyut, this change in climate also led to the creation of the current Sahara desert, around 3400 BC.. The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that "Egypt was the gift of the Nile". River Nile facts state it winds from Uganda to Ethiopia, flowing through a total of nine countries. Introductory Chemistry: A … The behavior that would have resulted given the inflow data was modeled. Europeans began to learn about the origins of the Nile in the fourteenth century when the Pope sent monks as emissaries to Mongolia who passed India, the Middle East and Africa, and described being told of the source of the Nile in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) Later in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, travelers to Ethiopia visited Lake Tana and the source of the Blue Nile in the mountains south of the lake. With the accumulation of … The Egyptian Nile connected to the Sudanese Nile, which captures the Ethiopian and Equatorial headwaters during the current stages of tectonic activity in the Eastern, Central and Sudanese Rift Systems. Because rivers are constantly seeing changes with waterflow and seasons, it can be extremely difficult to get accurate surveys on length and distance. The other stages of its evolution are the Paleonile, Protonile, Prenile and Neonile. According to the team's results, which have not been published, the Amazon is 4,225 miles (6,800 kilometers) long. 1. p. 693. Drought has proven to be a major cause of fatality in the Nile river basin. For years, the river actually came second to the Nile River, which runs from the mountains of Burundi to Egypt, where it spills into the Mediterranean Sea. Though their expedition included others, Brown and Scaturro were the only ones to complete the entire journey. Nile mud is black enough to have given the land itself its oldest name, Kem or Kemi, which also means “black” and signifies darkness. (1911). Despite the development of many reservoirs, drought during the 1980s led to widespread starvation in Ethiopia and Sudan, but Egypt was nourished by water impounded in Lake Nasser. It rises south of the Equator and flows northward through northeastern Africa to drain into the Mediterranean Sea. In the north of Sudan the river enters Lake Nasser (known in Sudan as Lake Nubia), the larger part of which is in Egypt. The course of the Nile in Sudan is distinctive. , In Nobiin the river is called Áman Dawū, meaning "the great water".. Its basin includes parts of Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Uganda, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Sudan, and the cultivated part of Egypt. The flow of the Blue Nile varies considerably over its yearly cycle and is the main contribution to the large natural variation of the Nile flow. Simulation studies to design water resources are discussed further in the article on hydrology transport models, that have been used since the 1980s to analyze water quality. This part of the river is a regular tourist route, with cruise ships and traditional wooden sailing boats known as feluccas. It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. During the wet season the peak flow of the Blue Nile often exceeds 5,663 m3/s (200,000 cu ft/s) in late August (a difference of a factor of 50). Lake Victoria was first sighted by Europeans in 1858 when British explorer John Hanning Speke reached its southern shore while traveling with Richard Francis Burton to explore central Africa and locate the great lakes. The team used outboard motors for much of their journey of over 5,000 kilometres ( 3,100 )! Their subsidence ceased, and the afterlife to improve this article ( requires login ). 5. Expeditions failed to determine the river is the source as three lakes in 1154 connected the. People who were among the first human powered transit of Ethiopia at Sabaloka just north Khartoum. In northern Zambia have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ). [ how long is the nile river?.! 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